Saturday, February 8, 2020
Module 3 Case Assignment - Coursework Example Customer values the product if it is unique; it is available at affordable price meeting customers needs quickly. A firm increases value of its products either by increasing its features, quality and utility or by lowering its costs. A company adds value by performing operations and processes efficiently and effectively and by continuous innovation in its activities. A company performs primary activities such as production, sales and marketing, research and development, and servicing activities to satisfy customersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs. Many support activities such as efficient materials management, human resource management, and the company infrastructure go along with in value creation process and attaining competitive advantage. Continuous learning and improvement is necessary to sustain competitive advantage and for that each important outcome needs to be compared and benchmarked (Connelley). While Kraft operates several product lines under several product categories, in broader sense, the value chain of Kraft Foods can be broken into inbound logistics, operations, outbound logistics, marketing and sales and finally services. The first three functions lead to demand fulfillment and the last two functions are geared towards generating demands from customers. Each part of the value chain of Kraft can be analyzed, in broader sense, to know how it helps adding value for its customers. Though Kraft outsources its basic raw materials globally it always feels a need to revamp its procurement processes. It is to be noted that before 2010 Kraft had around 77,000 vendors; however, only 1200 vendors met 80% of the supply. In 2010, Kraft decided to move towards more strategic suppliers reducing their numbers and achieved 40 percent incremental savings (Ellinor, 2010). However, the efforts need to be on revamping procurement chain significantly as that is still a major bottleneck for Kraft to meet its expanding demand of its products.
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Distancia Amingo Essay It was mid-afternoon. I could see faces along the road. I knew they were Iskolar ng Bayan; I assumed. They are for sure coming from different Bicol provinces. I was in a hurry to cross the lane. I was nearly bumped by a jeepney. Ano, magpapakamatay ka na? The driver shouted. Aw nano na costumbre, I murmured. I did not know whether he got the right person or I got a wrong way, either. After I crossed the pedestrian lane, I stopped and thought it over. Suddenly, a tricyle passed by. Distancia Amingo, as I have read the inscription on the board of its back. Keep distance, I told myself. I, most of the times, was waiting for and taking a ride in a jeepney every time I am going to office, church, mall, and even bar hopping. Jeepney becomes a public transportation of Legazpenos and other neighboring places. We are comfortable to call it as dyip or jeep. Indeed, my previous experience constructs a new concept that helps me out to observe, describe, and take note its technical and cultural background. What can you say? Jeepneys are originally made from US military jeeps, which military left them behind after ended the World War II instead of paying to ship the vehicles to America. A jeepney is a 12- to 16-passenger vehicle fashioned from second-hand military Jeeps used in the Philippines as public transportation. The term comes from a combination of the words Jeep and jitney, meaning small bus following a flexible schedule that carries passengers on a regular route. Over the years, the jeepney has grown to become one of the most prevalent means of transportation in the Philippines,Ã¢â¬ said Jacob Hendriks, eHow contributing writer. Today, it becomes the most common means of public transportation among provinces in the Philippines. Indeed, its name tags the Filipinos culture. If you could notice before you step up there are some slogans down the stair. Take note; you will perhaps frown or laugh at after reading it. Basta driver, sweet lover, this is an authentic example. It is not doubtful if passengers got smile when they have pleased to seat on the tukawan, I connote. On the other hand, this slogan simply speaks of machismo. In contrast, drivers could be described as polygamous by nature aside from being gentlemen to passengers. Perhaps, the status of their employment would attest that in some cases they coincidentally found women at night while they went to driving. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think if some of them got concubines, which could be the cause of love quarrel between him and his wife. I think this is the reason why some of them had encountered accident that is suicidal. Forgive me if I got the wrong concept. At the back of the driver seat, you can read, Barya lang po sa umaga. We cannot deny that many times we forgot to pay our fare using coins early in the morning. Dai akon sensilyo; thatÃ¢â¬â¢s it when driver asked. We cannot deny that we never allow ourselves to follow this simple rule; yet, when we demand good services from the authority basically our blood pressure seems to explode. High blood? so to speak. On the other hand, there are drivers who cheat. When you handed him more than the expected fare sometimes they forgot or meant not to return your change. I did not say that they are all cheaters because there also some of them who are honest. The moment you forgot, they screeched their wheels back. I also did not say that they are not angry when passengers count their change. Maski arog ako kaini, dai ko kaya manluko nin tawo, one time a driver murmured towards me. Feeling close, my flirt mind commented. Fasten your seat belt; you can read this line when you sit beside the driverÃ¢â¬â¢s seat. Sometimes, it is written as, fasten your sit belt. At first, I was annoyed; but, at the end, I realized that this line is the result of linguistic imperialism. We should forgive the perpetrator. We should not point our fingers to the driver because the nature of his work does not qualify to plead him guilty instead we will blame his teacher. It could be his parents as first teachers at home. It could be his teachers in the school, where learning takes place. Exactly, his learning experience constructs meaning as influence of constructivism. The good side is; he is not just a driver, but a skilled worker. This is the real substance of education shaping a person to be productive developing his potential to a defined skill. I was already inside the jeepney where I listened to the song entitled, Jeepney by Spongecola. What a coincidence, I said. Hush. Listen to the song. Bumaba ako sa jeepney/Kung saan tayoy dating magkatabi/Magkahalik ang pisngi nating dalawa. The verses describe how the lovers explicitly unveil their relationship. Public display affection (pda); they said. Yes, it is expected that this is between man and woman. It could possibly be a man with a queer wo(man). ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s true; we do not impose racism here. You can laugh, but do not judge. Just say; this is the law of extreme reality. Pues, I canÃ¢â¬â¢t bear the moment without looking into the trend of courtship nowadays. I tell you; I am not against with them. I really feel sad when I see lovers in the jeepney showing inhuman behavior. We cannot blame older than us if they canÃ¢â¬â¢t tolerate themselves to put them into gossip because they destroy our good tradition. So, it is not surprising if women are being brutalized and raped because they become motif of original sin. SiÃ¢â¬â¢isay su relihiyoso an padi o an drayber? It becomes a joke; but, if we look at it as new perspective, tambay or bystanders would answer us, of course, the driver. If you can observe; the driver will not drive the jeepney without signing a cross. Yes, I agree, but he cannot do it without prior knowledge about his religious ways without the priests. When we destroy our conscience, our faith will be at stake. Faith in our people and faith in God, said Sen. Benigno Ã¢â¬Å"NinoyÃ¢â¬ Aguino, Sr. In front of the jeepneyÃ¢â¬â¢s mirror, you can see a small altar with an image of Virgin Mary. It becomes the icon of their salvation. Sometimes, they hang above it a bunch of fresh and fragrant flower, sampaguita, which they bought three for ten pesos from the young vendors. These vendors could be young boys or girls who seemed to be unfortunate. No child shall be left behind, as envisioned by the DepEd. Yet, the more the children are unfortunate, the more they are not able to go to school. I am sure there is something wrong in their home. I am sure there is something wrong in the system of the government. Along the front window you can notice the driverÃ¢â¬â¢s prayer embroidered as, God bless our trip. With this, I can say that the driver is a symbolic for hard work and these four words represent for prayer. This entails that when we work we should never forget to pray. Ora et labora; in English means, pray and work. This simply reminds us that we should balance our material needs and our spiritual need. When I got down the stair another jeepney passed by. I could read the inscription, In God We Trust. I canÃ¢â¬â¢t imagine how Bicolanos survive amid scarcity as a result of natural calamity. I presume; BicolanosÃ¢â¬â¢ ways of living unfold the profound relationship with God. Ancient times indeed reflect how our ancestors passed on our good culture that defines our Bicolano identity. So, we have no reasons to smile. Starting today, we will keep distance when jeepney stops, but we will never lose hope when sudden misfortune comes because God never keeps us apart. He is just in our heart.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Jude the Obscure Ã Ã Ã Ã In Jude the Obscure, Thomas Hardy presents the characters Jude Fawley and Sue Bridehead, who violate the conventions of the repressive Victorian society while attempting to follow their natural instincts. By studying the novel, one sees that Hardy's intentions in doing this are to arouse the reader's sympathy for the characters, and to join in their ridicule of the codes of conduct they are breaking. Ã Ã Ã Ã The trial of Jude and Sue evoke a sympathetic response from the reader because the couple reflects the values which are prevalent in modern society. They suffer persecution for yielding to emotions which are no longer considered unacceptable or forbidden, as they were then. This portrays Victorian society as being cruel and unnatural, thus creating affection for the characters. Hardy understood the tendency for society to swing like a pendulum from one extreme to the other. He knew that the Victorian era would not last indefinately, and that future generations would become more liberated. This is beautifully illustrated in this reflection of Sue's: 'When people of a later age look back upon the barbarous customs and superstitions of the times that we have the unhappiness to live in, what will they think?Ã¢â¬â¢ (p.276) According to modern values, it is wrong to condemn people for following their pure and natural instincts, though they Ã¢â¬Ëhave wronged no man, cond emned no man, defrauded no man.Ã¢â¬â¢ (p.378) Therefore, by predicting these shifts, and exposing the injustice of Victorian society, Hardy evokes sympathy in the reader for Sue and Jude. Ã Ã Ã Ã Hardy also uses the two characters to reveal that he finds the society in which they live ridiculous. He joins Sue and Jude as they laugh at Ã¢â¬Ëthe artificial system of things, under which the normal sex-impulses are turned into devilish domestic gins and springes to noose and hold back those who want to progress. (p.279) In rare times of Ã¢â¬ËGreek joyousnessÃ¢â¬â¢ (p.366) Jude and Sue live by Ã¢â¬ËNatureÃ¢â¬â¢s lawÃ¢â¬â¢ and are able to enjoy, unabated, the Ã¢â¬Ëinstincts which civilisation has taken upon itself to thwart.Ã¢â¬â¢ (p.413) It is during these times that the two are truly able to laugh at the conventions they have violated, as they are content and unaffected by the repercussions.
Monday, January 13, 2020
Dulce et Decorum Est Ã¢â¬â Wilfred OwenÃ¢â¬â¢s renowned war poem for its frowning on the glorification on war, and The Last Night by Charlotte Gray, similarly depicting the effects of war on the unimpeachable youth, in prose form. Both are excellent representations of the devastation that war truly is and can only result in, and are both written in historical context, only Dulce et Decorum preceded the latter. Dulce directly juxtaposed another war poet, Jessie Pope, who romanticized the concept of it and really manipulated the patriotic conscience. The irony here is that the even after the former described the trauma that war produced, and the unacceptable manner in how people revered the act, the world went on to WWII. Which almost questions why did it happen, did not the destruction of the previous war play any guilt or effect on the countriesÃ¢â¬â¢ leaders? Over the course of this essay, I aim to reveal the physical and mental effects of war Ã¢â¬â as well as covering the idealism and the theme of slaughtering the innocents. In the beginning verse of Dulce, the author plays upon the image of a man walking. Contrastive to the propagandizing posters that were often seen at the time that rendered an erect, striding man holding a gun confidently- a picture of tired, old men is illustrated, which emphasizes the idea that they have aged far too quickly. Ã¢â¬Å"Bent double, like old beggarsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"knock-kneedÃ¢â¬ delineate a pigeon-toed figure suffering from pure fatigue Ã¢â¬âan inadequacy to be what is defined as a soldier. In the simile, Ã¢â¬Å"Coughing like hags, we cursedÃ¢â¬ , we can hear the witch hoarseness of the cough Ã¢â¬â the enigma here is the build-up this state if they have been simply marching through battles, like Jessie Pope presumed. A sense of utter sensory deprivation is conveyed through, Ã¢â¬Å"Men marched asleepÃ¢â¬ ¦ limped on, lame, all tired, drunk with fatigue, deaf even to the hoots.Ã¢â¬ The immediate assumption here is that the men would, if given the choice, collapse in a heap of discomfort, subconscious, and fall asleep. The fact that they are compared to drunken men only accentuates their circumstance, a probable disparity between when they started out as recruits and this moment in the poem. They conjured up a web of deception, and empathy from us, as well as in The Last Night, when the children rest in deep sleep despite the appalling environment Ã¢â¬â really showing their desperation for a moment of peace. The accumulation of all of this is that war has finally taken its toll, the young men evolving Ã¢â¬â or more appropriately, regressing Ã¢â¬â into haggard and withered creatures that have faced acute pain and loss. However, the change in pace within the stanza is evident Ã¢â¬â when faced by death, we experience Ã¢â¬Å"an ecstasy of fumblingÃ¢â¬ , and this change in speed exposes their anxieties when in the full, frontal face of death, or perhaps the inexplicable torment of a gas attack, as they have seen their peers die in the hands of it before. As they Ã¢â¬Å"fumbleÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â stressing the urgency of the situation Ã¢â¬â not everybody manages to clamber on a gas mask in time. The poem is told from a first-person perspective, although this is not made clear at first, however, this allows us to interpret it from a first-hand simulation. The inevitability of the gas floating towards them like a death sentence is horrific -one soldier inhales it, and the devastating effects described in detail. We watch helplessly at him Ã¢â¬Å"floundÃ¢â¬â¢ring like a man in fire or limeÃ¢â¬ , which links to burnings at the stake, arguably the worst torture in existence. We see his eyes writhe in his face, a clear connotation of a loon, suggesting he is in an insane, maniacal state. And then Ã¢â¬Å"his hanging face, like a devilÃ¢â¬â¢s sick of sin.Ã¢â¬ , only serves to show how much pain has been delivered. The men then Ã¢â¬Å"flingÃ¢â¬ him in a wagon which shows the dehumanization of the moment, and they watch him froth and gargle blood, twisting unnaturally. Ã¢â¬Å"The incurable soresÃ¢â¬ is exactly what it says, incurable. The physical effects are irrevocable, physically and mentally. Through use of emotive metaphors and similes, Owen molds an indubitably sickening portrayal of a suffering man, introducing the readers to the realities of war. Likewise, The Last Night also paints a picture of suffering, but in a far subtler manner. Unlike the soldiers in Dulce, the fate of these innocent, Jewish children is unavoidable for everyone, thus having a certain sadness to it. They have been sentenced to the gas chambers as well, and we can deduce that they will face like pain to the soldier in the previous paragraph, which, for a child, we all know is terrifying and never deserved. The pain we encounter in this extract is more that of basic deprivations, like food, water, and love too. We can understand that the children are exhausted because, despite the most likely uncomfortable surroundings, Ã¢â¬Å"many of the children were too deeply asleep to be aroused.Ã¢â¬ The children sleep in dung: Ã¢â¬Å"the soft bloom of cheek laid, uncaringÃ¢â¬ , shows a child with a tinge of rose in his cheeks, the sweetness and the unfairness of this trial he must endure. Again, they are reduced to an animalistic level, Ã¢â¬Å"JacobÃ¢â¬â¢s limbs were intertwined with his [his brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s] for warmth.Ã¢â¬ ; this imitates two young, baby animals that lie together, unknowing of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s cruelties or the predators that stalk them. The children are ravenous and denied of sufficient food and drink, as they cluster around a woman Ã¢â¬Å"holding out sardine cansÃ¢â¬ for water, and as we know, these cans are remarkably slim and unsuitable to drink water from, especially when the can is passed around of a crowd. They are each provided with a sandwich, this severe rationing a punishment they do not deserve. The physical pain that is shown in this section of The Last Night is purely tiredness and hunger, two qualities good parents ensure their children are not. Their frail bodies find it difficult to withstand this, but the dramatic irony here is that their fate in store is much worse and absolutely inhumane. Ã¢â¬Å"A shower of scraps was thrown towards themÃ¢â¬ reiterates the animals they are being essentially treated as. As for the mental pain faced by the soldiers, it must surpass the physical by far. From the lies, to leaving their loved ones, the pain and the distant memories are even more difficult to face. Homesickness, when really experienced, can be a very intense and sad feeling, and this does not really raise any morale. One can only imagine their befuddlement when arriving to the trenches and wondering where their accommodation was. As continued from the previous, their mental velocity increased tremendously when in the face of adversity and death. This can only be expected, and is marked by the Ã¢â¬Å"Gas! Gas! Quick, boys!Ã¢â¬ . The mental anguish when they see their peer suffer but are utterly of no use in this is astounding, and the scene runs almost as a nightmarish sequence, as signified by Ã¢â¬Å"Dim through the misty panes, and thick green light. In all my dreams before my helpless sight.Ã¢â¬ . The dramatic verb drown is used, and they watch their former companion die in the sea of gas, they having escaped the same fate by only a second or two. This fact is enough to leave them in a state of momentary shock, and in the future, a play back of this episode is probably revisited by every soldier who saw the sight and regretted having being unable to help him in any way Ã¢â¬â the same shock was experienced when all the Jews realized their time had come: Ã¢â¬Å"a quickening of muscle and nerveÃ¢â¬ in The Last Night. Through each line, we must remember whom the poem was addressed to, and we can sense some underlying bitterness. The triplet Ã¢â¬Å"guttering, choking, drowningÃ¢â¬ throws itself out with a dynamic impact. It wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be expected for the children to know of their demise, but as seen in the excerpt, they seem to sense something wrong. This is why Ã¢â¬Å"In the filthy straw, they dug their heels in and screamed.Ã¢â¬ Instead of just struggling, they choose to scream, which reveals their internal uncertainties and distress. The metaphor Ã¢â¬Å"digÃ¢â¬ means they are trying to fix themselves in the straw, and how they distrust the officers. They are forced towards and Ã¢â¬Å"crammedÃ¢â¬ in a bus, which again, brings back the animal-like treatment motif. As the adults wrote their possibly last messages which had no to little guarantee of delivery, Ã¢â¬Å"some wrote with sobbing passion and some with punctilious care.Ã¢â¬ Both adjectives suggest a degree of great mental turmoil, the only difference being the latter having some restraint. Yet there is a recognition of hopelessness in the atmosphere, Ã¢â¬Å"the adults in the room sat slumped against the wall.Ã¢â¬ , the emotions going through them must have been complex, but ultimately, an increasing feel of nothing can be done, and giving up. This is not a movie where the resolution magically occurs, but this is a depiction of reality. As the officers call out their names Ã¢â¬Å"alphabeticallyÃ¢â¬ , in a standardized order, this shows how devoid of emotion or remorse they are, and how each child and each person is reduced to just another name. There is a nervous and tense atmosphere, it seems as if everybody is waiting for some justice to occur, but as we know, this does not happen. They are quickly thrown into the buses, Ã¢â¬Å"the homely sound of a Parisian busÃ¢â¬ is somehow mocking to the whole scene. Probably the most heart-rending image is when a mother sees her child for the last timeÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Å"her eyes were fixed with terrible ferocityÃ¢â¬ ¦ intensely open to fix the picture of her child, for ever.Ã¢â¬ To see your child for the last time, to know of the death, to be able to do nothing about it, as in Dulce, there is the same sense of no faith or hope. The wails and screams of the women as they throw food towards the buses from the camp Ã¢â¬â knowing the food will never reach, but desperately wanting to do something anyhow Ã¢â¬â is the final time they will ever see their maternal figures, and the children are, precisely put, doomed. The fact that none of the officers act even merely touched by their fellow humansÃ¢â¬â¢ sadness is repulsive. Ã¢â¬Å"Five municipal buses now stood trembling in the corner of the yardÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â the buses are personified, which is a symbolic representation of their fear. The story concludes with the bus turning away, Ã¢â¬Å"the headlights, for a moment, light up the cafÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½ opposite before the driver turned the wheel and headed for the station.Ã¢â¬ This glimpse of something perfectly normal spotlights the unfairness of it all on the children Ã¢â¬â who at one time, had that Ã¢â¬Ëother lifeÃ¢â¬â¢. The theme of glory and innocence is well covered in Dulce. In fact, the title is sufficient, To die for your country, is a sweet thing. The poem runs on to contradict it, ending with, Ã¢â¬Å"The old lie: Dulce Et Decorum Est, Pro Patria Mori.Ã¢â¬ And we are forced to agree, having been witness to the preceding bloodshed. Ã¢â¬Å"If you could hear, at every jolt, the blood come gargling from the froth-corrupted lungsÃ¢â¬ ¦ thy friend, you could not tell with such high zest, to children ardent for some desperate glory, The Old Lie:Ã¢â¬ , this quotation sums up all the contempt he has for any form of glorification of war, when really it is oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own sacrifice rather than an obligation. It has a tinge of instruction to it, almost as if he trying to convince her in an angry, forceful way, and if he said it verbally, it seems as if it would increase with volume. This is quite justified, as Jessie Pope idealized war as fun, and liked it to a game, and that anybody who Ã¢â¬ËchickenedÃ¢â¬â¢ out was basically a coward. This induced such an outrage that Owen felt he needed to prove how nauseating the concept was. He addresses the soldiers as Ã¢â¬Å"childrenÃ¢â¬ , which somehow brings out their naivety and how easy it is to convince Ã¢â¬â adults generally lie to children in order to mask the truth. The young men were obviously targeted for recruiting and decided to join more out of fear of mockery rather than pure patriotism. The concept of innocence in The Last Night is brought up quite often, the youngness of the children is stressed upon. For example, Ã¢â¬Å"Some children were too small to manage the step upÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"A baby few weeksÃ¢â¬ ¦ cot was crammed into the bus.Ã¢â¬ If the children are too small to even step onto the bus themselves, and require support, and they really criminals Ã¢â¬â or infested jews? They are too young to even know the reason for their death, and as soon as they came into this world, they were stolen just as quickly. They have no ability to reason, no ability to know of the dangers, no ability to believe in anything, yet simply because of their religion Ã¢â¬â something they are most likely unaware of Ã¢â¬â they have been sentenced to die and never experience any of lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s pleasures. If they havenÃ¢â¬â¢t learnt simple motor skills, how can they be expected to react to a gas attack? The pure horror of it can never be condensed Ã¢â¬â it is like t hose horror stories materialized. Dulce and The Last Night are both classic pieces of history, genuine and likely more realistic records of those corrupt events that hopefully will not happen ever again. They are both timeless, and dark reminders of why war shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t happen, although pain is still inflicted, every second. These two pieces are a reminder that pain can never truly be prevented as that is how a few are wired to work Ã¢â¬â and these few have the power to influnce many others. However, the main point the pieces try to bridge across is the innocence of the fighters Ã¢â¬â who are more like pawns or victims Ã¢â¬â and the superfluous glorification of war. Something that pains another should never be laughed or promoted in any form, as fundamentally, we are one species, we are the same, as Shylock in the Merchant of Venice so eloquently expressed. The quotation Ã¢â¬Å"Do unto others as others would do unto you,Ã¢â¬ applies to both concepts the writers try to draw, but in the end, the sadness in both renditions of war is the dehumanization and of course, the gruesome massacres, but mostly, the indifference. The indifference of the bystanders as well as the leaders.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Case Narrative for ER Admission of Adam Rudd Jennifer during her usual visits finds Rudd sitting in a chair looking very anxious. He says, Ã¢â¬Å"I am having throbbing headaches and blurry visionÃ¢â¬ . Jennifer call 911 immediately and the ambulance bring Rudd to the ER and Jennifer follows the ambulance in her car. Student Instructions: You are assigned to one of the beds in ER where Adam Rudd is admitted. You receive the following report from the triage RN: Ã¢â¬Å"The patient is Adam Rudd, a 78 y/o white male with a history of hypertension. He has been diagnosed with hypertension past 15 years and is on anti-hypertensive medications and aspirin. He is very weak and short of breath. He is accompanied with his longtime friend Jennifer, who reports that Rudd was looking very weak and was complaining of severe headache and blurred vision before coming to the hospital. He is 5Ã¢â¬â¢9Ã¢â¬ and weighs 270 lb. Vital signs recorded were: oral temperature 98.20 F, BP 224/120 mm Hg with a heart rate of 102 beats/minute and respiration of 24 breaths per minute. The pulse oximetry reading was 94% on room air. He is complaining of severe headache and blurred vision. Rudd said that he did not take his antihypertensive medication or aspirin since he ran out of pills. He has not been taking his medication for past 15 days. He reports no known allergies to any medications or other substances.Ã¢â¬ You introduce yourself to Jennifer and Rudd and explain to them that you are going to check vital signs and
Saturday, December 28, 2019
Shirley Anita St. Hill Chisholm was a political figure who was decades ahead of her time. As a woman and a person of color, she has a long lists of firsts to her credit, including: First African American woman elected to Congress (1968)First African American woman to seek a major party nomination for President of the United States (1972)First woman to have her name placed in nomination for President at the Democratic National ConventionFirst African American to be on the ballot as a candidate for President Unbought and Unbossed After serving just three years in Congress representing New Yorks 12th District, Chisholm decided to run using the slogan that had gotten her elected to Congress in the first place: Unbought and Unbossed. From the Bedford-Stuyvesant section of Brooklyn, NY, Chisholm initially pursued a professional career in child care and early childhood education. Switching to politics, she served four years in the New York State Assembly before she made a name for herself as the first black woman to be elected to Congress. Chisholm Just Said No Early on, she was not one to play political games. As her presidential campaign brochure tells it: When given an assignment to sit on the House Agriculture Committee Congresswoman Chisholm rebelled. There is very little agriculture in Brooklyn...She now sits on the House Education and Labor Committee, an assignment that allows her to combine her interests and experience with the critical needs of her constituents. Candidate of the People of America In announcing her presidential campaign on January 27, 1972, at the Concord Baptist Church in Brooklyn, NY, Chisholm said: I stand before you today as a candidate for the Democratic nomination for the Presidency of the United States of America.I am not the candidate of black America, although I am black and proud.I am not the candidate of the womens movement of this country, although I am a woman, and I am equally proud of that.I am not the candidate of any political bosses or fat cats or special interests.I stand here now without endorsements from many big name politicians or celebrities or any other kind of prop. I do not intend to offer to you the tired and glib cliches, which for too long have been an accepted part of our political life. I am the candidate of the people of America. And my presence before you now symbolizes a new era in American political history. Shirley Chisholms 1972 presidential campaign placed a black woman squarely in the center of a political spotlight previously reserved for white men. If anyone thought she might tone down her rhetoric to fit in with the existing old boys club of presidential candidates, she proved them wrong. As she had promised in her announcement speech, tired and glib cliches had no place in her candidacy. Telling it Like it Is As Chisholms campaign buttons reveal, she never held back from letting her attitude emphasize her message: Ms. Chis. For Pres.Chisholm - Ready or NotTake the Chisholm trail to 1600 Pennsylvania AvenueChisholm - President of All the People An Independent, Creative Personality John Nichols, writing for The Nation,Ã explains why the party establishment - including most prominent liberals - rejected her candidacy: Chisholms run was dismissed from the start as a vanity campaign that would do nothing more than siphon votes off from better-known anti-war candidates such as South Dakota Senator George McGovern and New York City Mayor John Lindsay. They were not ready for a candidate who promised to reshape our society, and they accorded her few opportunities to prove herself in a campaign where all of the other contenders were white men. There is little place in the political scheme of things for an independent, creative personality, for a fighter, Chisholm observed. Anyone who takes that role must pay a price. Instead of Old Boys, New Voters Chisholms presidential campaign was the subject of filmmaker Shola Lynchs 2004 documentary, Chisholm 72,Ã broadcast on PBS in February 2005. In an interview discussing Chisholms life and legacy in January 2005, Lynch noted the particulars of the campaign: She ran in the majority of the primaries and went all the way to the Democratic National Convention with delegate votes.She entered the race because there was no strong Democratic front runner....there were about 13 people running for the nomination....1972 was the first election impacted by the voting age change from 21 to 18. There were going to be millions of new voters. Mrs. C wanted to attract these young folks as well as anyone who felt left out of politics. She wanted to bring these people into the process with her candidacy.She played ball until the end because she knew her delegate votes could have been the difference between the two candidates in a closely contested nomination battle. It did not exactly turn out that way but it was a sound, and clever, political strategy. Shirley Chisholm ultimately lost her campaign for the presidency. But by the conclusion of the 1972 Democratic National Convention in Miami Beach, Florida, 151.95 votes had been cast for her. She had drawn attention to herself and the ideals she had campaigned for. She had brought the voice of the disenfranchised to the forefront. In many ways, she had won. During her 1972 run for the White House, Congresswoman Shirley Chisholm encountered obstacles at nearly every turn. Not only was the political establishment of the Democratic Party against her, but the money wasnt there to fund a well-managed and effective campaign. If She Could Do It Over Again Feminist scholar and author Jo Freeman was actively involved in trying to get Chisholm on the Illinois primary ballot and was an alternate to the Democratic National Convention in July 1972. In an article about the campaign, Freeman reveals how little money Chisholm had, and how new legislation would have made her campaign impossible today: After it was over Chisholm said that if she had to do it over again, she would, but not the same way. Her campaign was under-organized, under-financed and unprepared....she raised and spent only $300,000 between July 1971 when she first floated the idea of running, and July of 1972, when the last vote was counted at the Democratic Convention. That did not include the [money] raised and spent on her behalf...by other local campaigns.By the next Presidential election Congress had passed the campaign finance acts, which required careful record keeping, certification and reporting, among other things. This effectively ended grass roots Presidential campaigns like those in 1972. Was It All Worth It? In the January 1973 issue of Ms. magazine, Gloria Steinem reflected on the Chisholm candidacy, asking Was it all worth it? She observes: Perhaps the best indicator of her campaigns impact is the effect it had on individual lives. All over the country, there are people who will never be quite the same....If you listen to personal testimony from very diverse sources, it seems that the Chisholm candidacy was not in vain. In fact, the truth is that the American political scene may never quite be the same again. Realism and Idealism Steinem goes on to include viewpoints from both women and men in all walks of life, including this commentary from Mary Young Peacock, a white, middle-class, middle-aged American housewife from Fort Lauderdale, FL: Most politicians seem to spend their time playing to so many different points of view....that they dont come out with anything realistic or sincere. The important thing about Chisholms candidacy was that you believed whatever she said....it combined realism and idealism at the same time....Shirley Chisholm has worked out in the world, not just gone from law school straight into politics. Shes practical. Face and Future of American Politics Practical enough that even before the 1972 Democratic National Convention was held in Miami Beach, FL, Shirley Chisholm acknowledged that she couldnt win in a speech she gave on June 4, 1972: I am a candidate for the Presidency of the United States. I make that statement proudly, in the full knowledge that, as a black person and as a female person, I do not have a chance of actually gaining that office in this election year. I make that statement seriously, knowing that my candidacy itself can change the face and future of American politics - that it will be important to the needs and hopes of every one of you - even though, in the conventional sense, I will not win. Somebody Had to Do It First So why did she do it? In her 1973 book The Good Fight, Chisholm answers that significant question: I ran for the Presidency, despite hopeless odds, to demonstrate the sheer will and refusal to accept the status quo. The next time a woman runs, or a black, or a Jew or anyone from a group that the country is not ready to elect to its highest office, I believe that he or she will be taken seriously from the start....I ran because somebody had to do it first. By running in 1972, Chisholm blazed a trail that candidates Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama - a white woman and a black man - would follow 35 years later. The fact that both those contenders for the Democratic nomination spent much less time discussing gender and race - and more time promoting their vision for a new America - bodes well for the lasting legacy of Chisholms efforts. Sources: Shirley Chisholm 1972 Brochure. 4President.org. Shirley Chisholm 1972 Announcement. 4President.org. Freeman, Jo. Shirley Chisholms 1972 Presidential Campaign. JoFreeman.com February 2005. Nichols, John. Shirley Chisholms Legacy.Ã The Online Beat, TheNation.com 3 January 2005. Remembering Shirley Chisholm: Interview with Shola Lynch.WashingtonPost.com 3 January 2005. Steinem, Gloria. The Ticket That Might Have Been... Ms. Magazine January 1973 reproduced at PBS.org
Friday, December 20, 2019
Is cable television a monopoly? According to the theory of the invisible hand of the marketplace, as advocated by Adam Smith, the marketplace naturally determines the optimal price of a good or service. But even Adam Smith viewed the development of monopolies with some trepidation and believed that government intervention was required to cease their proliferation. During the 1980s to the 1990s, it seemed fairly clear to most industry analysts that cable television functioned as a monopoly in a manner that was deleterious to consumers. Cable television had few competitors, except in the form of analog rabbit ears which did not provide the full range of channels or quality that cable provided. In many areas, only a single cable company dominated the market and subscribers had few alternative options. However, in the era of the Internet, the market has changed. Cable television has been challenged by many alternative venues of media consumption, most notably in the form of the Internet. 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